**60 Microwave Fundamentals
(3) CSU** Lecture 3 hours.

**Prerequisites: **Electronics 6 and
8.

Microwave signals and their applications. Power
density and RF safety. Electromagnetic waves and propagation. Antennas:
Dipole, vertical. Transmission lines: Characteristics, principles and analysis.
Use of Smith Chart. VSWR, return loss, and reflection coefficient. Stubs
and tuners. Waveguides, modes. Microwave signal generation and
amplifiers. Microwave components operation.

**61 Microwave
Fundamentals Laboratory (1) CSU** Laboratory 3 hours.

**Prerequisite: **Electronics 60 or concurrent
enrollment.

Practical laboratory experience performing microwave
measurements using VSWR and power meters, spectrum analyzers, swept frequency
systems and plotters. VSWR, reflection coefficient, load impedance,
power, frequency, and attenuation are determined through lab experimentation.
Use of time domain reflectometry.

**Electronics 60 - Microwave
Fundamentals Course Outline
**

- Overview of IEE microwave frequency bands and sub-band names. Discuss applications for the study of Microwave, Define the Isotropic Source, power density, and calculate safe distances to a microwave source.
- Nature of electromagnetic waves, axwell's equation. Dipole antenna vs. vertical antenna: length equations, radiation resistance and directivity patterns. Wave polarization.
- Free space propagation, The TEM wave. Velocity factor. Affect of velocity factor on wavelength. Refraction, reflection diffraction and absorption of electromagnetic waves.
- Introduction to transmission lines: coaxial and twin lead types. Defining the characteristic Impedance. Reflections from lines with open and shorted terminations, Standing waves and standing wave ratio. Review of decibel power equations and antilogs.
- Terminated transmission lines, Transmission line equations: VSWR, voltage and power reflection coefficient, mismatch loss, return loss.
- Identifying from measurements transmission line conditions that are acceptable and not acceptable: Comparison of VSWR, reflection coefficient, mismatch loss and return loss for various terminations.
- Loss of transmission lines defined, How loss affects transmission line performance, Effects of line loss of VSWR.
- Complex load impedances as transmission line terminations, Introduction to the Smith Chart, Using the Smith Chart to determine impedance at any point along a mismatched transmission line.
- The need for tuners, Impedance matching using the Q-Section, Advantages and design of a single stub tuner.
- Types of waveguide and its use as a high frequency transmission line, Propagation of electromagnetic waves in a rectangular waveguide. The dominant mode. Waveguide parameters: cutoff wavelength, group velocity, group wavelength, phase velocity, characteristic impedance, Discussion for the need for different size waveguides at different frequencies.
- Waveguide components: Attenuators, Directional couplers, Detectors, Slotted lines, Isolators.
- Devices that generate microwave power: Gunn oscillator, Reflex Klystron, Magnetron, Backward Wave Oscillator (BWO).
- Devices that amplify microwave signals: Transistor, triode and interelectrode capacitance, Travelling wave tube (TWT).
- Printed circuit transmission lines: Strip and microstrip lines. S-Parameters.
- Radar: Doppler radar, Pulse Radar, The radar range equation, Parabolic dish, Helical, Phased arrays.

- Introduction to microwave components and measuring instruments.
- Power Density and Electromagnetic Safety Consideration.
- Reflection, Diffraction, Refraction of Electromagnetic Waves.
- Standing Waves in Free Space and on Transmission Lines.
- Slotted Line VSWR Measurements.
- Power Measurements.
- The Affects of Attenuation on Transmission Line VSWR.
- Use of the Slotted Line and Smith Chart.
- S-Parameters and Network Analyzer.
- Swept Frequency Techniques.
- Coaxial Slotted Line and Smith Chart.
- Waveguide Components.
- Spectrum Analyzer Operation.
- Time Domain Reflectometry.
- Lab Performance Demonstration.